Democracy was never meant for the poor – 800 years of tears since June 15, 1215

On FB I met in a chat-discussion:

‪#‎RT‬ ‪#‎MagnaCarta800‬ It’s the BIG one, this is the day We the people reinstate our Rights, We take back our Power… Join us! There is nothing more precious than Liberty… whatever you have to do to be here today, please do!
MAGNA CARTA DAY Monday 15th June 2015 ‪#‎EmpowermentMondays‬‪#‎BeliefsChangeMatter‬

As I am not living in a Common Wealth country, I wanted to know exactly for which people the Magna Carta was meant, and therefore I shared two previous blogs to this, but I went on and googled: Magna Carta 800 years of tears, met these articles: http://arewamagazine.blogspot.nl/2015/01/democracy-was-never-meant-for-poor-by.html

Democracy is often defined as ‘the government of the people, to the people, and by the people’ among the major characteristics of democracy include; timely election, right to vote and be voted, campaigns, and parliament.  looking critically at democracy in Nigeria, the developing world, and indeed the whole world, one will tend to understand that ‘ democracy was not meant for the poor’.

     This  is because, from setting up of political parties, primary elections, campaigns, up to general election, it is all about money, power and what both can do.  from the registration of political parties,  buying of expression of interest forms, campaign and travels, democracy did not make any arrangement for the poor except voting which he has no another option. just recently, the APC presidential candidate complain about high price of forms at the cost of 27.5 million naira, that is to high, not for the poor, with the poor and not by the poor.
   According to media reports, the sum of 21 billion naira was “donated’ to president Jonathan during the lunch of his campaign funds, that is nearly one third of the budget  of some states of the federation, those that look like that was meant for everybody. I wonder whether Nigeria’s democracy was meant for the cabals. Why on earth will a rich country like Nigeria ever have  poverty of to about 50 percent of the population?
    Whether monarchy, socialism, military dictatorship, democracy, or another system of government, what is most important is that, the government should be able to protect the lives and properties of people, their welfare and their overall interest. If the government cannot do that, then anarchism may triumph over the interest of the nation.
therefore, 2015    must  be a different year for Nigeria. a year of hope, reflection, peace and centenary year for rekindling a better Nigeria.

The EU’s architects never meant it to be a democracy

The rise of a “technocracy” was always part of the plan for Europe.

Greek police face the wrath of the people in Athens, the cradle of democracy - The EU's architects never meant it to be a democracy

7:18PM GMT 12 Nov 2011

Comments350 Comments

So, as headlines scream that vain bids to save the euro threaten us with “Armageddon”, the EU’s ruling elite has toppled two more elected prime ministers, to replace them with technocratic officials who can be trusted to do Brussels’s bidding.

Redefining and combating poverty Human rights, democracy and common goods in today’s Europe
http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/socialpolicies/socialcohesiondev/source/Trends/Trends-25_en.pdf

Dennis Kucinich on Welfare & Poverty

Democratic Representative (OH-10)

Address poverty with full employment economy & social reformQ: We live in a country today where Latino and Black household wealth–not income, but accumulated household wealth–is about 10% for the average black and brown family of what it is for the average white family. How did we get here and how do we get out of it?

A: In Cleveland we face a situation where there is a massive amount of foreclosures, rising unemployment about around particularly around African American households and some Latinos. Here is my plan first of all. A full employment economy. A Roosevelt type WPA program that puts everyone who is able to work back to work with a living wage. Second a not for profit health care system. Third, universal pre-kindergarten. Four, universal college education. So we need to make economic reform the fundamental driving force in this country and a president percentage stands for the principle of a rising tide lifts all boats not trickle down economics.

Source: 2007 Iowa Brown & Black Presidential Forum , Dec 1, 2007

Funding faith-based initiatives with taxes is problematicIn 2003, Kucinich said he believes that funding faith-based initiatives with tax dollars can be problematic and that the strings attached to federal funds awarded to religious groups could encroach on the freedom of religion. Instead, he said, he sees peace, health care, education and other matters of social welfare as “faith-based initiatives.” Rather than giving money to religious groups, “the work of government ought to be advancing spiritual principles in our everyday life,” he said.

Source: The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life , Oct 25, 2007

Separate state from church, not from spiritual valuesQ: Do you believe that, through the power of prayer, disasters like Hurricane Katrina could have been prevented?

A: I come from a spiritual insight which says that we have to have faith but also have good works. The founders meant to have separation of church & state, but they never meant America to be separate from spiritual values. I’ll bring strong spiritual values to the White House, and I’ll bring values that value peace, social & economic justice, values that remember where I came from.

Source: 2007 Democratic primary debate on “This Week” , Aug 19, 2007

Public sector has moral responsibility to provide jobsWhere the private sector fails to provide jobs, the public sector has a moral responsibility to do so. There ought to be work for those who are able to work and who want to work. Our industrial base is understood to be vital to our national economic welfare. America needs a great new public works program to restore the dream of a full employment economy.

Source: 2004 House campaign website, Kucinich.us, “On The Issues” , Aug 1, 2003

Education is only solution to alleviate povertyCongress should strive to reduce poverty as its goal. Education is the only solution proven to reduce poverty levels. Encourage people to get career training or work toward a college degree, GED, other degree or learn English. A college degree translates to a living wage job that allows people to live self-sufficiently and move from welfare programs for good.

Source: 2004 House campaign website, Kucinich.us, “On The Issues” , Aug 1, 2003

Next Monday is the 800th birthday of a document called Magna Carta. Some people say it’s one of the most important legal documents ever written. And while it’s pretty old now you can still find traces of it in modern laws around the world.
Here’s Sarah to explain how it all came to be.

FULL TRANSCRIPT

Magna Carta manuscript reveals its secrets: Scans uncover lost text hidden on a damaged section of 800-year-old parchment

  • Burnt Magna Carta text has been made visible for the first time in 250 years
  • Experts used multispectral imaging work to reveal the illegible words
  • Manuscript was said to have been damaged in a fire in London in 1731
  • It’s one of four that have survived since 1215 when the charter was created
  • The four documents will come together for the first time next year


Multispectral imaging (pictured left) – a non-destructive imaging technique – of the burnt copy has been conducted and has revealed text that has not been visible for 250 years. An image of the historical manuscript can be seen, right, under cyan lighting conditions

THE COTTON LIBRARY FIRE OF 1731

The scanned copy of the Magna Carta was damaged in the Cotton Library fire in 1731.

The contents of the Cotton Library was assembled by Robert Cotton and presented to the British nation by his grandson in 1700.

It contains some of the most well-known treasures of the British Library, including the Lindisfarne Gospels, Magna Carta and Beowulf.

On October 23, 1731, a fire broke out where the manuscripts were being temporarily held, at Ashburnham House, Westminster.

A quarter of the collection was affected and the librarian is said to have leapt from a window to escape the blaze, rescuing an early manuscript of the Bible at the same time.

A total of 13 manuscripts were completely destroyed and many only survived as charred fragments, or with significant damage.

Lots of the parchments were coated in gelatine, which is the end product of sudden degradation of the parchment collagen. When cooled, it becomes brittle and obscures text. Water used to extinguish the fire, also played a role in damaging the literary treasures.

The content of the hidden text isn’t new, because the four manuscripts have the same content, but the discovery is important nonetheless.

To clarify the contents of the damaged parchment, a team of experts first examined the original frames to determine their structure and composition.

All original mounting materials in contact with the charters were tested using different methods, such as infrared spectroscopy and pH tests, to determine their stability and compatibility with the new materials.

Once the charters were removed from the frames, near-infrared spectroscopy and high-resolution digital microscopy was used to investigate the condition of the ink and parchment to assess the overall condition of the historical document.

‘With the frames and glass removed, there was a rare opportunity to employ the cutting-edge technique of multispectral imaging enabling us to virtually peel away the layers of damage currently affecting the manuscript,’ Dr Duffy wrote.

Multispectral imaging is a non-destructive, non-invasive imaging technique using different colour lights, including ultra-violet and infrared, to recover faded and lost text.

Multispectral imaging is a non-destructive, non-invasive imaging technique using different colour lights, including ultra-violet and infrared, to recover faded and lost text. This is the result when used on the manuscript. Text invisible to the human eye can be seen and analysed by experts

Multispectral imaging is a non-destructive, non-invasive imaging technique using different colour lights, including ultra-violet and infrared, to recover faded and lost text. This is the result when used on the manuscript. Text invisible to the human eye can be seen and analysed by experts

In February 2015, the four copies of the Magna Carta will be brought together for the first time in history for a three-day event, which will allow further academic study of them side by side. An easily legible copy usually housed at Salisbury Cathedral is shown

In February 2015, the four copies of the Magna Carta will be brought together for the first time in history for a three-day event, which will allow further academic study of them side by side. An easily legible copy usually housed at Salisbury Cathedral is shown

Uncovering the text was a painstaking process. Temporary housing was prepared to store the charter (top left) and the original wooden frames carefully removed to get access to the manuscript (top right). The charter was removed from the mounting (bottom left) and then underwent tests to determine its condition (bottom right)

Uncovering the text was a painstaking process. Temporary housing was prepared to store the charter (top left) and the original wooden frames carefully removed to get access to the manuscript (top right). The charter was removed from the mounting (bottom left) and then underwent tests to determine its condition (bottom right)

WHY THE MAGNA CARTA WAS SO GROUND-BREAKING

  • Magna Carta means The Great Charter in Latin and was originally issued in 1215.
  • It was the first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges.
  • The charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary.
  • It was an important part of the process that led to the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world.
  • In practice Magna Carta in the medieval period did not generally limit the power of kings.
  • But by the time of the English Civil War it had become an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was bound by the law.
  • It influenced the early settlers in New England and inspired later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution.

A high-resolution camera was securely mounted directly over the charter, which was then illuminated with LED lights ranging from the ultraviolet at wavelengths invisible to humans, to the visible.

The chemical composition of the material in the charter was varied and included ink and parchment which reacts differently to the lights. This means that experts could see extra information – including text – which is undetectable by the human eye.

This technique will allow scientists to preserve the Magna Carta for the next 800 years.

In February 2015, the four manuscripts will be brought together for the first time in history for a three-day event, which will allow further academic study of them side by side.

The date is 800 years after the issue of the Charter by King John in 1215.

A total of 1,215 members of the public will also be able to see them.

People interested in the historic opportunity can enter a ballot to be in with a chance of taking part in the event, sponsored by law firm Linklaters.

The British Library is home to two of the original Magna Carta manuscripts, while the other two are held at Lincoln and Salisbury Cathedrals.

Claire Breay, Lead Curator of Medieval and Earlier Manuscripts at the British Library, says: ‘Magna Carta is the most popular item in the Library’s Treasures gallery, and is venerated around the world as marking the starting point for government under the law.

‘Bringing the four surviving manuscripts together for the first time will create a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for researchers and members of the public to see them in one place.’

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2784884/Magna-Carta-manuscript-reveals-secrets-Scans-uncover-lost-text-hidden-damaged-section-800-year-old-parchment.html#ixzz3d6jqoDfi
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@MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Multispectral imaging (pictured left) – a non-destructive imaging technique – of the burnt copy has been conducted and has revealed text that has not been visible for 250 years. An image of the historical manuscript can be seen, right, under cyan lighting conditions

THE COTTON LIBRARY FIRE OF 1731

The scanned copy of the Magna Carta was damaged in the Cotton Library fire in 1731.

The contents of the Cotton Library was assembled by Robert Cotton and presented to the British nation by his grandson in 1700.

It contains some of the most well-known treasures of the British Library, including the Lindisfarne Gospels, Magna Carta and Beowulf.

On October 23, 1731, a fire broke out where the manuscripts were being temporarily held, at Ashburnham House, Westminster.

A quarter of the collection was affected and the librarian is said to have leapt from a window to escape the blaze, rescuing an early manuscript of the Bible at the same time.

A total of 13 manuscripts were completely destroyed and many only survived as charred fragments, or with significant damage.

Lots of the parchments were coated in gelatine, which is the end product of sudden degradation of the parchment collagen. When cooled, it becomes brittle and obscures text. Water used to extinguish the fire, also played a role in damaging the literary treasures.

The content of the hidden text isn’t new, because the four manuscripts have the same content, but the discovery is important nonetheless.

To clarify the contents of the damaged parchment, a team of experts first examined the original frames to determine their structure and composition.

All original mounting materials in contact with the charters were tested using different methods, such as infrared spectroscopy and pH tests, to determine their stability and compatibility with the new materials.

Once the charters were removed from the frames, near-infrared spectroscopy and high-resolution digital microscopy was used to investigate the condition of the ink and parchment to assess the overall condition of the historical document.

‘With the frames and glass removed, there was a rare opportunity to employ the cutting-edge technique of multispectral imaging enabling us to virtually peel away the layers of damage currently affecting the manuscript,’ Dr Duffy wrote.

Multispectral imaging is a non-destructive, non-invasive imaging technique using different colour lights, including ultra-violet and infrared, to recover faded and lost text.

Multispectral imaging is a non-destructive, non-invasive imaging technique using different colour lights, including ultra-violet and infrared, to recover faded and lost text. This is the result when used on the manuscript. Text invisible to the human eye can be seen and analysed by experts

Multispectral imaging is a non-destructive, non-invasive imaging technique using different colour lights, including ultra-violet and infrared, to recover faded and lost text. This is the result when used on the manuscript. Text invisible to the human eye can be seen and analysed by experts

In February 2015, the four copies of the Magna Carta will be brought together for the first time in history for a three-day event, which will allow further academic study of them side by side. An easily legible copy usually housed at Salisbury Cathedral is shown

In February 2015, the four copies of the Magna Carta will be brought together for the first time in history for a three-day event, which will allow further academic study of them side by side. An easily legible copy usually housed at Salisbury Cathedral is shown

Uncovering the text was a painstaking process. Temporary housing was prepared to store the charter (top left) and the original wooden frames carefully removed to get access to the manuscript (top right). The charter was removed from the mounting (bottom left) and then underwent tests to determine its condition (bottom right)

Uncovering the text was a painstaking process. Temporary housing was prepared to store the charter (top left) and the original wooden frames carefully removed to get access to the manuscript (top right). The charter was removed from the mounting (bottom left) and then underwent tests to determine its condition (bottom right)

WHY THE MAGNA CARTA WAS SO GROUND-BREAKING

  • Magna Carta means The Great Charter in Latin and was originally issued in 1215.
  • It was the first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges.
  • The charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary.
  • It was an important part of the process that led to the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world.
  • In practice Magna Carta in the medieval period did not generally limit the power of kings.
  • But by the time of the English Civil War it had become an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was bound by the law.
  • It influenced the early settlers in New England and inspired later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution.

A high-resolution camera was securely mounted directly over the charter, which was then illuminated with LED lights ranging from the ultraviolet at wavelengths invisible to humans, to the visible.

The chemical composition of the material in the charter was varied and included ink and parchment which reacts differently to the lights. This means that experts could see extra information – including text – which is undetectable by the human eye.

This technique will allow scientists to preserve the Magna Carta for the next 800 years.

In February 2015, the four manuscripts will be brought together for the first time in history for a three-day event, which will allow further academic study of them side by side.

The date is 800 years after the issue of the Charter by King John in 1215.

A total of 1,215 members of the public will also be able to see them.

People interested in the historic opportunity can enter a ballot to be in with a chance of taking part in the event, sponsored by law firm Linklaters.

The British Library is home to two of the original Magna Carta manuscripts, while the other two are held at Lincoln and Salisbury Cathedrals.

Claire Breay, Lead Curator of Medieval and Earlier Manuscripts at the British Library, says: ‘Magna Carta is the most popular item in the Library’s Treasures gallery, and is venerated around the world as marking the starting point for government under the law.

‘Bringing the four surviving manuscripts together for the first time will create a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for researchers and members of the public to see them in one place.’

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2784884/Magna-Carta-manuscript-reveals-secrets-Scans-uncover-lost-text-hidden-damaged-section-800-year-old-parchment.html#ixzz3d6jqoDfi
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